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(Date of issue: August 2021, Version: 3)

This is a UKTIS monograph for use by health care professionals. For case-specific advice please contact UKTIS on 0344 892 0909. To report an exposure please download and complete a pregnancy reporting form. Please encourage all women to complete an online reporting form.

A corresponding patient information leaflet on mycophenolate use in pregnancy is available at


Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is the pro-drug of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an antiproliferative agent that interferes with purine synthesis, thereby suppressing the immune response. MMF/MPA are indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in transplant recipients and are generally used concomitantly with other immunosuppressant medications, including ciclosporin and corticosteroids. MMF/MPA are also used off-license to control autoimmune conditions such as psoriasis and lupus nephritis.

MMF/MPA are contraindicated during pregnancy unless there is no possible alternative to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ. This is due to an increased risk of first trimester pregnancy loss and confirmed human teratogenic effects, including craniofacial anomalies (cleft lip and/or palate, microtia, external auditory canal atresia, micrognathia); microphthalmia, coloboma of iris and retina, and hypertelorism; complex congenital cardiac anomalies, including septal defects, conotruncal and outflow tract anomalies; oesophageal atresia, diaphragmatic hernia, and various vertebral and skeletal anomalies. The two largest cohort studies carried out to date report malformation rates of 11.6% and 26% among offspring exposed to MMF in the first trimester.

The UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) guidelines state that females of reproductive potential who are prescribed MMF or MPA should use at least one form of reliable contraception during treatment and for six weeks after cessation. Male patients or their untreated female partner should use reliable contraception during treatment and for at least 90 days after cessation. Readers are advised to consult the most up-to-date version of these guidelines before prescribing MMF or MPA.

Women taking MMF or MPA who are planning a pregnancy should be reviewed by a specialist so that, if possible, a suitable alternative medication regime can be implemented prior to conception. Women taking these drugs who report an unplanned pregnancy should be offered urgent review, either in clinic or by telephone, within one or two working days.

Women exposed to MMF or MPA during early pregnancy should be counselled about the risks to the fetus and offered detailed anomaly scans focussing on the craniofacial structures, the heart, abdomen and skeletal system. Clinicians should also be aware that case-specific assessment of risk could also be affected by other factors that may independently increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Please report all cases of MMF/MPA exposure to UKTIS.

This document is regularly reviewed and updated. Only use full UKTIS monographs downloaded directly from to be sure you are using the most up-to-date version. The summaries of these monographs are openly available on

This is a summary of the full UKTIS monograph for health care professionals and should not be used in isolation. The full UKTIS monograph and access to any hyperlinked related documents is available to health care professionals at

If you have a patient with exposure to a drug or chemical and require assistance in making a patient-specific risk assessment, please telephone UKTIS on 0344 892 0909 to discuss the case with a teratology specialist.

If you would like to report a pregnancy to UKTIS please click here to download our pregnancy reporting form. Please encourage all women to complete an online reporting form.

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that this monograph was accurate and up-to-date at the time of writing, however it cannot cover every eventuality and the information providers cannot be held responsible for any adverse outcomes of the measures recommended. The final decision regarding which treatment is used for an individual patient remains the clinical responsibility of the prescriber. This material may be freely reproduced for education and not for profit purposes within the UK National Health Service, however no linking to this website or reproduction by or for commercial organisations is permitted without the express written permission of this service. This document is regularly reviewed and updated. Only use UKTIS monographs downloaded directly from or to ensure you are using the most up-to-date version.