(Date: February 2022. Version: 1.0)

This factsheet has been written for members of the public by the UK Teratology Information Service (UKTIS). UKTIS is a not-for-profit organisation funded by Public Health England on behalf of UK Health Departments. UKTIS has been providing scientific information to health care providers since 1983 on the effects that medicines, recreational drugs and chemicals may have on the developing baby during pregnancy.

What is it?

Paxlovid is an antiviral medicine, taken as tablets. It is used in people with COVID-19 who are at risk of developing severe symptoms.

What are the benefits of using Paxlovid in pregnancy?

Paxlovid can stop early COVID-19 infection from developing into serious illness. However, it is not currently recommended in pregnancy. This is because Paxlovid is new and there is not yet any information about its use in pregnancy.

What are the risks of using Paxlovid in pregnancy?

It is not known whether there are any risks of using Paxlovid in pregnancy. This may change over the coming months as information is collected about women who take Paxlovid before realising they are pregnant and pregnant women who choose to take part in clinical trials involving Paxlovid.

If you have taken Paxlovid in pregnancy or became pregnant shortly after you finished taking it, please tell your doctor or midwife so that information about your pregnancy can be collected. If you live in the UK, you can speak to UKTIS (telephone: 0344 892 0909, available Monday-Friday 9am-5pm, excluding Bank Holidays) for advice and to report the details of your pregnancy.

Are there any alternatives to using Paxlovid in pregnancy?

Yes. Other medicines can help prevent severe COVID-19 infection. Synthetic (manmade) antibodies like casirivimab/imdevimab (Ronapreve®) and sotrovimab (Xevudy®) are also new but are thought unlikely to be harmful in pregnancy because they only target the COVID-19 virus.

Vaccination against COVID-19 is recommended for all pregnant women in the UK. It can lower the chance of infection, help to prevent serious illness and may reduce the need for other medicines. For more information, please see here.

What if I prefer not to take medicines to treat COVID-19 during pregnancy?

Pregnant women are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness and higher risks of premature delivery and stillbirth as a consequence. Your doctor will only offer medicines to treat COVID-19 when necessary and will be happy to talk to you about any concerns that you might have.

Will I or my baby need extra monitoring?

As part of routine antenatal care, most women will be offered a scan at 12 weeks of pregnancy and a more detailed scan at around 20 weeks to check the baby’s development. Women who have used Paxlovid in early pregnancy may be offered further scans in a Fetal Medicine Unit to check the baby’s development in detail.

Are there any risks to my baby if the father has used Paxlovid?

We would not expect any effects on the baby if the father has used Paxlovid.

Who can I talk to if I have questions?

If you have any questions regarding the information in this leaflet please discuss them with your healthcare provider. They can access more detailed medical and scientific information from

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General information 

Up to 1 out of every 5 pregnancies ends in a miscarriage, and 1 in 40 babies are born with a birth defect. These are referred to as the background population risks.  They describe the chance of these events happening for any pregnancy before taking factors such as the mother’s health during pregnancy, her lifestyle, medicines she takes and the genetic make up of her and the baby’s father into account.

Medicines use in pregnancy

Most medicines used by the mother will cross the placenta and reach the baby. Sometimes this may have beneficial effects for the baby.  There are, however, some medicines that can harm a baby’s normal development.  How a medicine affects a baby may depend on the stage of pregnancy when the medicine is taken. If you are on regular medication you should discuss these effects with your doctor/health care team before becoming pregnant.

If a new medicine is suggested for you during pregnancy, please ensure the doctor or health care professional treating you is aware of your pregnancy.

When deciding whether or not to use a medicine in pregnancy you need to weigh up how the medicine might improve your and/or your unborn baby’s health against any possible problems that the drug may cause. Our bumps leaflets are written to provide you with a summary of what is known about use of a specific medicine in pregnancy so that you can decide together with your health care provider what is best for you and your baby.   

Every pregnancy is unique. The decision to start, stop, continue or change a prescribed medicine before or during pregnancy should be made in consultation with your health care provider. It is very helpful if you can record all your medication taken in pregnancy in your hand held maternity records.

Disclaimer: This information is not intended to replace the individual care and advice of your health care provider. New information is continually becoming available. Whilst every effort will be made to ensure that this information is accurate and up to date at the time of publication, we cannot cover every eventuality and the information providers cannot be held responsible for any adverse outcomes following decisions made on the basis of this information. We strongly advise that printouts should NOT be kept for any length of time, or for “future reference” as they can rapidly become out of date.

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